Canonization and Translation of the Scriptures

Canonization of the New Testament

 

I.      Composition (50-100AD)

A.   Definitions

1.     Scripture – Inspired by God “Graphe” in the Greek (2 Tim 3:16, 17)

2.     Canon – from Hebrew “kaneh” (reed) measuring device, or “Official List”; “yardstick”

3.     Canonization – the process of measuring and singling out what should be considered part of what is inspired and authoritative from God.

B.   Early Christian Authority

1.     Septuagint LXX – Old testament commonly used by the Jews, the Apostles and Jesus in their time. As the Jews were scattered all over the Roman Empire where Greek was the lingua franca it became necessary to translate the OT into Greek for the purpose of teaching children born in dispersion. The OT was translated into Greek by the joint effort of 70 Scholars around 250-150 BC. Hence it was called LXX or The Septuagint. Thus both the Hebrew Scripture of the Palestinian Jews and the Greek Scripture Septuagint of the Alexandrian Jews remained side by side and popular at the time of Jesus. Paul extensively used the Septuagint as did the Apostles and Jesus Himself.

2.     Sayings of Jesus – He is the Messiah, He is the Word of God! He said in Luke 24:44

He said to them, "This is what I told you while I was still with you: Everything must be fulfilled that is written about me in the Law of Moses, the Prophets and the Psalms."

3.     Apostles – Authorized by Jesus to teach the rest of us into all the truth (John 16:13)

 

II.   Collection (100-300AD)

A.   The Apostles’ Letter to the church in Antioch (Acts 15:23ff)

With them they sent the following letter: The apostles and elders, your brothers, To the Gentile believers in Antioch, Syria and Cilicia: Greetings.

B.   Pauline Letters

1.     Evidence of Circulation by himself in many of the letters (Col 4:16; 1 Thes 5:27)

After this letter has been read to you, see that it is also read in the church of the Laodiceans and that you in turn read the letter from Laodicea.

 

I charge you before the Lord to have this letter read to all the brothers.

2.     Evidence of authority of these letters (2 Thes 2:15; 2 Thes 3:14; 2 Pe 3:15, 16)

So then, brothers, stand firm and hold to the teachings we passed on to you, whether by word of mouth or by letter.

 

If anyone does not obey our instruction in this letter, take special note of him. Do not associate with him, in order that he may feel ashamed.

 

15 Bear in mind that our Lord's patience means salvation, just as our dear brother Paul also wrote you with the wisdom that God gave him.

 16 He writes the same way in all his letters, speaking in them of these matters. His letters contain some things that are hard to understand, which ignorant and unstable people distort, as they do the other Scriptures, to their own destruction.

C.   General Letters

1.     James

2.     Peter

3.     John

4.     Jude

 

D.   The Apostolic Fathers

1.     Quoted from Paul’s letters and from Jesus’ sayings

2.     Quoted from Gospel of Mark

3.     Clement and Tertulian had already started to collect the Gospels and Paul’s letters, accepting them to be inspired and authoritative.

E.   Writings of Luke to Theophilus

F.    Four Fold Gospels

1.     Memoirs of Justin Martir

2.     Irenaeus – Four Gospels

3.     P45 (200AD) – Four Gospels & Acts

4.     Codex D – Matthew John Luke & Mark

G.  Didache – Sayings of Life

III.Closure (300-367AD)

A.   Standards for Canonization

1.     Apostolicity

2.     Universality

3.     Inspiration

B.   Muratorian Canon

(4 Gospels, Acts, 13 letters of Paul, Jude, 1-2 John, Wisdom of Solomon, Revelation, Apocalypse of Peter)

C.   Eusebius 4rth Century Canon

4 Gospels, Acts, 14 letters of Paul, 1 John, 1 Peter, Revelation; disputed: James, Jude, 2 Peter, 2-3 John, Acts of Paul, Shepherd of Hermas, Apocalypse of Peter, Epistle of Barnabas, Didache

D.   Festal Letter of Athanasius (367AD)

"THOSE OF THE NEW TESTAMENT, I MUST NOT SHRINK FROM MENTIONING IN THEIR TURN. THEY ARE THESE: FOUR GOSPELS . . . AFTER THESE ARE THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES AND THE SEVEN LETTERS OF THE APOSTLES, CALLED THE 'CATHOLIC' LETTERS . . . FOURTEEN LETTERS OF PAUL THE APOSTLE . . .LAST FROM JOHN COMES THE REVELATION."

E.   TimeLine

1.     AD 100: Different parts of the current NT were all written, but not yet collected and defined as “Scripture”; Early Christian writers such as Polycarp, Ignatius and Clement of Rome quoted from the Gospels and Paul’s letters, referring to them as “Scripture”; Paul’s letters were collected late in the 1st C. and Matt, Mark, Luke brought together by AD 150; (Marcion’s canon in AD 140 which had parts of Luke and 10 Pauline epistles)

2.     AD 191: NT used in the church at Rome, “Muratorian Canon”–All except Hebrews, 1 & 2 Peter, 3 John; Plus Revelation of Peter, Wisdom of Solomon; Shepherd of Hermas for private, not public, use

3.     AD 250: NT used by Origen–All except Hebrews, James, 2 Peter, 2 & 3 John, Jude, which were disputed; Other disputed writings–Shepherd of Hermas, Letter of Barnabas, Teaching of 12, Apostles, Gospel of the Hebrews

4.     AD 300: NT used by Eusebius–All except James, 2 Peter, 2 & 3 John, Jude–which were disputed; Hebrews, not even disputed; Revelation’s authorship questioned

5.     AD 367: Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria publishes the first complete list of New Testament books in the canon; Council of Rome (382), Hippo (393) and Carthage (397) confirm this, therefore by

6.     AD 400: 27 NT books accepted universally–“Recognized” and “Disputed” were accepted; “Spurious” and “Heretical” rejected

a)    Recognized (Canonical): Accepted as Scriptures; Matt, Mark, Luke, John, Acts, 13 epistles of Paul, 1 Peter, 1 John

b)    Disputed: Questionable authorship; Hebrews, James, 2 Peter, 2 & 3 John, Jude, Revelation

c)     Spurious (Uncanonical): Theologically problematic; Little used but familiar throughout; Acts of Peter, Preaching of Peter, Revelation of Peter, Acts of Paul, Shepherd of Hermas, Epistle of Barnabas, Teaching of the Apostles, Gospel of the Hebrews; Didache

d)    Heretical: Not used; Not in harmony with predominant beliefs; Gospel of Peter, Gospel of Thomas, Gospel of Matthias, Acts of Andrew, Acts of John

7.     Final Criteria

a)    Written by apostles

b)    Work of Immediate disciple or apostle

c)     Represented apostolic teaching

 

Ten Stages of NT Formation and Transmission
See also "Transmission of the Greek NT"

  1. The Historical Jesus – words are spoken and deeds are performed by Jesus himself during his lifetime on earth.
  2. Oral Tradition – traditions and beliefs about Jesus are developed and passed on by early Christian communities.
  3. Written Sources – some of the miracles and/or sayings of Jesus are compiled and recorded in early written documents.
  4. Written Texts – individual letters, full Gospels, etc., are written with particular messages for particular situations.
  5. Distribution – some writings are copied and shared with other Christian communities throughout the Mediterranean.
  6. Collection – certain Christians begin collecting the letters of Paul and gathering together several different Gospels.
  7. Canonization – four Gospels, several collections of letters, and a few other texts are accepted as authoritative scriptures.
  8. Translation – biblical texts are translated into other ancient and modern languages:  Latin, Syriac, Coptic, Armenian, etc.
  9. Interpretation – the meaning of the scriptures is investigated on various levels:  literal, spiritual, historical, social, etc.
  10. Application – communities and individuals use the NT for practical purposes:  liturgical, moral, sacramental, theological, etc
     

Translation of the Bible into English

IV.           Establishment of Reliable Texts

A.   Autographs: The inspired source

B.   Which texts are considered reliable?

1.     “Critical Text” Method:

a)    Comparison of Ancient Greek Manuscripts, early translations and quotations from the early church fathers are made

b)    An attempt is made to restore the original construct of the New Testament

c)     This method assumes that the earliest sources are most dependable: also followed by historical critics

2.     Textus Receptus (Received Text)

a)    Uses a small group of relatively late minuscule manuscripts containing readings unsupported by any other Greek manuscripts – of Byzantine or “Eastern” origin

b)    Not actually a single edition, but a sort of text-type of its own consisting of hundreds of extremely similar but not identical editions. Nor do any of its various flavors agree exactly with any extant text-type or manuscript. Thus the need, when referring to the Received Text, to specify which received text we refer to.

3.     The Majority Text

a)    This one is determined by counting manuscripts, and the text which is supported by the greatest number o manuscripts is alleged to be more closer to the original.

b)    Does not regard date of authenticity

c)     Recent discovers lend to support more early text types, discounting the validity of the majority approach

V.  Translator’s Theology

A.   Conservative translations

1.     Those who translate believe to be translating God’s Word and are careful to reflect the native meaning and use of words and phrases. KJV Translators had that conviction, along with those of the ERV and ASV.

B.   Liberal translations

1.     Many times these are not convinced they are translating God’s Word, but ancient manuscripts that had their origin in man.

2.     Take liberties with the text and often substitute with their interpretations as in the RSV and NIV.

VI.           Philosophy of Translation

A.   Formal Equivalence vs. Dynamic Equivalence

1.     Formal Equivalence (FE) attempts to translate the words and nuances of the original as literally as possible provided that clarity is conveyed in English: KJV, ERV, ASV and some of the NASB.

a)    Sometimes a phrase may not make sense in this form since the euphemism may only make sense to the culture of that particular time

(1)  1 Thes 4:4 “posses him own vessel” explained below

b)    Sometimes a word may have more than one meaning

(1)  Acts 1:18 / Phil 1:8 on the use of “splanchnon” or “intestines”

2.     Dynamic Equivalence (DE) attempts to convey the meaning of the text in free and idiomatic English without much regard for the exact wording of the original

a)    Sometimes the translator becomes more a commentator in this regard

b)    Sometimes the grammatical peculiarities are there because God wanted them to be there:

(1)  Matthew 22:32 (argument on verbal tenses: “I am”)
(2)  Galatians 3:16 (argument about seed vs. seeds)
(3)  John 8:24, 28, 58 (Jesus says He is “I am”)

(4) Mathew 16:13-19 (Jesus plays with gender and size idioms)

B.   Paraphrased versions are not translations but interpretations.

1.     Today’s English Version

2.     The Message

3.     The Living Bible

C.   Only the original autographs were inspired of God

1.     1 Co 2:11-13   11 For who among men knows the thoughts of a man except the man's spirit within him? In the same way no one knows the thoughts of God except the Spirit of God. 12 We have not received the spirit of the world but the Spirit who is from God, that we may understand what God has freely given us. 13 This is what we speak, not in words taught us by human wisdom but in words taught by the Spirit, expressing spiritual truths in spiritual words.

2.     2 Tim 3:16, 17 16 All Scripture (graphe) is God-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness, 17 so that the man of God may be thoroughly equipped for every good work.

3.     2 Peter 1:20,21  20 Above all, you must understand that no prophecy of Scripture (graphe) came about by the prophet's own interpretation. 21 For prophecy never had its origin in the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.

VII.        Translation Difficulties

A.   Word for word translation is impossible: Greek is a different language and has different modes and tenses that do not carry into English:

 

1 Co 16:8, 9 But I will stay on at Ephesus until Pentecost, because a great door for effective work has opened to me, and there are many who oppose me.

 

Greek:

8 epimenw de en ejesw ewV thV penthkosthV qura gar moi anewgen megalh kai energhV kai antikeimenoi polloi

 

Word for Word Translation:

Will continue but at Ephesus until Pentecost. Door for me opened great and effective and adversaries many.

B.   Sometimes literal translations would make no sense in English due to Greek euphemisms or metaphors.

1.     Acts 17:18 — A group of Epicurean and Stoic philosophers began to dispute with him. Some of them asked, "What is this “seed-picker” (Spermologos) trying to say?" Others remarked, "He seems to be advocating foreign gods." They said this because Paul was preaching the good news about Jesus and the resurrection.

2.     Spermologos = seed picker = babbler or gossiper

3.     1 Thes 4:4  (NIV) …that each of you should learn to control his own body <posses his own vessel>; or <acquire a wife> in a way that is holy and honorable…

C.   Some words have different meanings depending on the context

1.     Acts 1:18 With the reward he got for his wickedness, Judas bought a field; there he fell headlong, his body burst open and all his intestines (splanchnon) spilled out…

2.     Phil 1:8 God can testify how I long for all of you with the intestines ???(splanchnon) of Christ Jesus.

3.     Splanchon = bowels, guts, affection, mercy

VIII.     No perfect translation of the Bible.

A.   Bible translators are not inspired of God.

B.   Only the original autographs were inspired of God

C.   All versions have weaknesses and differences.

IX.           Examination of various translations:

A.   King James Version (KJV) 1611

1.     John Wycliff’s Translation – First complete English Bible in 1382

2.     William Tyndale’s English New Testament in 1525

3.     92% of Tyndale’s translation is carried over into the KJV

4.     Genesis 1:6 translation of “raquia” (expanse) into “firmament”

a)    Hebrew term does not imply “firmness”

b)    Comes from the Septuagint’s rendition of “stereoma”, reflecting the Alexandrian belief in a “stone vault” Heaven.

c)     We find the same rendition in the Latin Vulgate: “firmamentum”

5.     Numbers 23:22 reference to “unicorn” [wild ox]

6.     Isaiah 13:21 reference to “satyr” [wild goat]

7.     Acts 2:47 And the Lord added to the church daily such as should be saved”

a)    Greek “tous sozomenous” is a present tense participle – the being saved ones

b)    This reflects Calvinistic tendencies

B.   American Standard Version (ASV) 1901

1.     Considered the better translated English Bible of the 20th century

2.     Formal Equivalent translation as the KJV. Available only through Star Bible and the Gospel Advocate.

3.     Some radical footnotes produced by a liberal secretary of the New Testament Committee:

a)    John 9:38 – Then the man said, "Lord, I believe," and he worshiped him. The Greek word rendered “worship” denotes an act of reverence, whether paid to a creature (as here) or to the Creator.

b)    John 1:18 – No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him. The expression “God Only begotten” is banned to a footnote in this text. It should read: No one has ever seen God, but God the One and Only, {18 Or <the Only Begotten>} {18 Some manuscripts <but the only> (or <only begotten>) <Son>} who is at the Father's side, has made him known. (NIV)

4.     Matthew 28:1 Now late on the Sabbath day, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulcher. The Greek term “opse”, used as an improper preposition with the genitive means “after”. The correct version should read: After the Sabbath, at dawn on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to look at the tomb. (NIV)

5.     Both the KJV and the ASV are incomplete in 1 Co 16:2: Upon the first day of the week let each one of you lay by him in store, as he may prosper, that no collections be made when I come. The Greek term “kata mian sabbatou” should be rendered “on the first day of every week”

C.   New American Standard Bible (NASB) (1963/1970)(1995*)

1.     Reflects some premillenial bias is several places:

a)    Isaiah 2:2

b)    Galatians 6:16

c)     Marl 13:30

d)    Revelation 5:10; 20:4

2.     Mt 5:17 Do not think that I came to abolish (destroy is a better rendition) the Law or the Prophets; I did not come to abolish, but to fulfill. (NASB) This would contradict Eph 2:15: by abolishing in His flesh the enmity, [which is] the Law of commandments [contained] in ordinances, that in Himself He might make the two into one new man, [thus] establishing peace…(NASB)

3.     Galatians 3:26 For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus. Where it should read: For ye are all sons of God, through faith, in Christ Jesus. (ASV)

4.     Philp 2:6 who, although He existed (correct should be existing) in the form of God, did not regard equality with God a thing to be grasped…

D.   New International Version (NIV) (1973/78)

1.     The translating committee acknowledged they sought for more than a “word-for-word” translation (DE).

2.     There is much modification of sentence structure

3.     Many texts are changed to reflect a consistent contextual view, but in doing so, some reflect more the doctrinal bias of the translators, straying ar from the original documents

4.     Ps 51:5 Surely I was sinful at birth (brought forth in iniquity [NASB]), sinful from the time my mother conceived me.

5.     Ro 7:18 I know that nothing good lives in me, that is, in my sinful nature (flesh). For I have the desire to do what is good, but I cannot carry it out.

6.     1Pe 2:8 and, "A stone that causes men to stumble and a rock that makes them fall." They stumble because they disobey the message– which is also what they were destined for (to this doom they were also appointed [NASB]).

7.     1Pe 3:21 and this water symbolizes baptism that now saves you also– not the removal of dirt from the body but the pledge of a good conscience toward God (an appeal to God for a good conscience[NASB]). It saves you by the resurrection of Jesus Christ…

8.     1Co 13:10 but when perfection (the perfect/complete) comes, the imperfect disappears.

9.     Ac 2:27 because you will not abandon me to the grave (Hades), nor will you let your Holy One see decay.

10. Mt 11:23 And you, Capernaum, will you be lifted up to the skies? No, you will go down to the depths (Hades). If the miracles that were performed in you had been performed in Sodom, it would have remained to this day.

E.   God’s Word (to the Nations) (GWT) (1995)

1.     Their Goal: To communicate clearly to today's Americans without compromising the accuracy of the Bible's message. This new translation consciously combines scholarly fidelity with natural English.

2.     This translation project employed full-time biblical scholars and full-time English editorial reviewers.

3.     Formal Equivalence (of sorts) then turned into what they call “Closest Natural Equivalence”

a)    Closest Natural Equivalence

b)    Contrasting Closest Natural Equivalence to Form Equivalence

c)     Contrasting Closest Natural Equivalence to Function Equivalence

d)    Closest Natural Equivalence Maintains the Balance

4.     GOD'S WORD® uses a linguistic translation method — similar to the widely accepted translation method used by missionary translators throughout the world today. As a result, it reads more easily, is more literally accurate, and communicates the intended meaning of the Bible more clearly and naturally than any other English translation.

5.     Archaic words are substituted for more commonly understood and used terms:

a)    abomination = disgusting thing

b)    alpha and omega = A and Z

c)     ark = ship (when used with Noah)

d)    ark of the covenant = ark of the promise

e)     ascribe = give

f)      atonement = make acceptable, make peace with, pay, forgive, payment for sins

g)    bath = gallons

h)    blaspheme = curse, dishonor (God), slander

i)       betrothed = promised in marriage

j)      bless the Lord = thank the Lord

k)    evangelist = missionary

l)       remission = forgiveness

m) remnant = faithful few, remaining few, those who are left

n)    repent = change the way you think and act

o)    resurrection = came back to life, brought back to life

p)    right hand = position of authority, highest position

q)    Sabbath = day of worship

r)     sanctify = set apart, set aside, dedicate, holy

6.     Here’s an example of all the equivalences discussed:

a)    1Th 4:4  That every one of you should know how to possess his vessel in sanctification and honor… (KJV, ASV) [FE]

b)    1Th 4:4  Each of you should know that finding a husband or wife for yourself is to be done in a holy and honorable way…(GWT) [NE]

c)     1Th 4:4 that each of you should learn to control his own body in a way that is holy and honorable (NIV) [DE]

7.     It capitalizes the first letter in proper nouns and sentences and in all letters of the word LORD when it represents Yahweh.

8.     It does not capitalize any pronouns (except I and unless they begin sentences).

9.     In passages that apply to all people, it tries to use gender-neutral language so that all readers will apply these passages to themselves.

10. If a passage focuses upon an individual, it does not use plural nouns and pronouns to avoid the gender-specific pronouns he, him, and his.

F.    English Standard Version (ESV) 2001

1.     Unlike many modern paraphrases, which pursue the Dynamic Equivalence (DE) approach, the ESV “seeks as far as possible to capture the precise wording of the original text and personal style of each Bible writer.” Its goal, therefore, was to produce, a “word-for-word” edition.

2.     The original-language texts employed in the project were the Masoretic text for the Old Testament, Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (1983 – 2nd Ed.), and for the New Testament, The Greek New Testament (1993 – 4th ed. UBS) and Novum Testamentum Graece (Nestle/Aland – 27th ed.). The English rendition of this new version is somewhat analogous to the RSV of 1971, minus the liberal elements of that translation.

3.     The translation team involved more than 100 scholars, the names and credentials of whom are available upon request from Crossway Bibles. The ESV is recommended by such notable scholars as Robert Mounce, J.I. Packer, R.C. Sproul, Leon Morris, Harold Hoehner, and Jack Cottrell.

4.     It may turn out to be the best modern alternative to the King James translation of four centuries ago, better even the revered ASV of 1901 – now that this latter version is almost extinct.

5.     Another of the strengths of the ESV is the clarity and accuracy which many passages lacked in some of the earlier versions. For example “expanse” replaces the ill-rendered “firmament” in Genesis 1. The term “cattle” (a specific term) appears as “livestock” (more generic) in the ESV of Genesis 1.

6.     Genesis 22:1 notes that “God tested Abraham;” he did not “tempt” him (cf. James 1:13), as the old KJV suggested. The Shakespearean “thee” and “thou” are replaced with contemporary pronouns: “And God said to Abram, Go from your country and your father’s house…” (Genesis 12:1). The increasingly obsolete “brethren” is now found as “brothers.” Or when more distant relatives are considered, “brethren” becomes “kinsmen” (Genesis 13:8).

7.     Compare the following passages which depict the power of God in the storms of nature. “The noise thereof sheweth concerning it, the cattle also concerning the vapour” (Job 36:33 KJV). The ESV has it: “Its crashing declares his presence; the cattle also declare that he rises.” Or these: “…you are straightened in your own bowels” (2 Corinthians 6:12 KJV); “…you are restricted in your own affections” (ESV).

8.     Concerning the Sunday collection, the ESV correctly has: “On the first day of every week…,” whereas both the KJV and ASV omit the term “every.”

9.     The ESV corrects the NIV relative to 1 Corinthians 7:15. The NIV suggests that if an unbeliever leaves his Christian mate, the Christian “is not bound” to the relationship any longer (which is at variance with Matthew 19:9). The ESV, however, correctly notes that the Christian is “not enslaved,” i.e., is not obligated to pursue the abandoning mate, maintaining perpetual proximity.

10. Passages dealing with baptism are given a fair treatment in this version (although, as with most others, the verb baptizo is anglicized, rather than being strictly translated as “immerse,” for commercial purposes). This is a problem that goes all the way back to the King James Version, and has been almost uniformly followed since then. One can only imagine how few editions would be sold among denominationalists if “immersion” was the common rendition of baptizo.

11. The ESV of 1 Peter 3:21 shows that immersion is “an appeal to God for a good [i.e., clean] conscience,” which obviously one cannot have apart from that obedience.

12. Negatives:

a)    Some earlier versions (e.g., KJV; NKJV; ASV; NASB) employed italics in the type-setting process indicating when words were being added to the text for clarification purposes. Unfortunately, the ESV does not continue that helpful procedure.

b)    Some translations in recent years have had the tendency to be more generic than they needed to be. For example, the NASB rendered porneia (“fornication”) by “immorality” in Matthew 19:9. That is too generic. Stealing is a form of “immorality,” but it is not the basis for scriptural divorce. Similarly, the ESV translates porneia as “sexual immorality.” Again, though, that is still too general. Lust is a form of “sexual immorality,” but evil thoughts are not a justification for terminating a marriage. The translators probably felt that the term “fornication” is not understood well enough today; that assumption likely is unwarranted.

c)     It is puzzling that the ESV transliterated the Greek word hades in Acts 2:27, and yet rendered the same term as “hell” in Matthew 16:18. The common conception of “hell” is that it represents the final abode of the wicked. One is grateful, however, for the ESV footnotes on Matthew 16:19; 18:18, which reflect the perfect tense form of the verbs, “shall have been bound,” etc., thus showing that the apostles yielded to Heaven’s will, rather than the reverse being true (as alleged by Catholicism).

d)    The ESV could be improved by translating “the perfect” (1 Cor. 13:10) as “the complete,” which would then balance with its rendition, “the partial,” in 10b. The contrast is between partial revelation and complete revelation. Too many people erroneously attach a moral connotation to “perfect” in this text, thus contending that spiritual gifts were to continue until the coming of Christ (who is presumed to be the “perfect” one, implied in the passage).

e)     In a segment where the headship of “man” (in general) over “woman” is in view (1 Corinthians 11:3ff), rather than the husband-wife relationship, the ESV renders the original words aner as “husband,” and guneas “wife,” in a manner that is inconsistent with the immediate context, and at variance with other contexts dealing with the same gender theme (1 Corinthians 14:34-35; 1 Timothy 2:8ff.).

X.  Justifying the use of a Translation – A Historical Look

A.   The case for the Septuagint (LXX)

1.     Jesus and the Apostles used a “modern-day” translation.

2.     The only translation other than the Hebrew Bible in the First Century was the Septuagint.

3.     It was not a perfect translation.

4.     The Lord still regarded it as God’s Word.

B.   Comparison between the LXX and the Hebrew Scriptures

1.     LXX contained the Apocryphal books

a)    These books were written during the inter-biblical period

b)    Most of these books were from Christian origin

c)     Some of them even contain Christian songs

d)    These books are never acknowledged by Jesus or the apostles

2.     LXX translation quality varies and is sloppy in some portions

a)    The Pentateuch was the most carefully translated

b)    Isaiah and the Psalms were carelessly translated

c)     Daniel was so poorly done that the early church frequently used Theodotion’s translation for it.

d)    Chronologies don’t match

(1)  The Hebrew text suggests 1656 years between Adam and the Flood
(2)  The LXX suggests 2242 years

e)     Esther is bloated: The Hebrew text contains 107 verses and the LXX contains 270

f)      In the LXX, Jeremiah is one seventh shorter

g)    In the LXX, Job is one fourth shorter

C.   The LXX was not inspired, it is a translation, although a rather rough one when considering the many discrepancies

D.   However, Jesus and the New Testament writers quoted from the LXX as God’s Word.

E.   Even thought the LXX was a far inferior translation than those we have today, Jesus and the apostles didn’t have a problem using it as God’s Word.